Criminal Charges for Medical Professionals Openly Supporting Pro-Life Candidates?

“Power tends to corrupt and absolute power corrupts absolutely.”

-Sir John Dalberg-Acton (April 1887)

Has anyone seen the new law being proposed trying to silence medical and healthcare workers from having their voices heard politically?

The law up for consideration says registered nurses who choose to speak out against Obamacare or talk about any type of political activity whatsoever, including legislation having to do with abortion, euthanasia, or Medicare/Medicaid, funding for hospitals, or funding for research during the time of their shifts or in any way whatsoever on hospital property (even in the break room during lunch or on a bulletin board in the lounge) will be fined $10,000 for the first offense and charged with a misdemeanor!

If after the first CRIMINAL conviction, they still have not learned their lesson about keeping their mouths shut (even during breaks), the repeat offending nurse will be fined $10,000, have another misdemeanor criminal conviction, and permanently have his or her license to practice nursing revoked by the government! That’s right a pro-life discussion at the break table, a word to a coworker about how they do not agree with some new medical legislation, or any sort of political expression of thought, even during breaks using the nurse’s own phone, would result in criminal charges!

Unfortunately, you haven’t even heard the most extreme part yet! Under the new law doctors, hospital administrators, and those serving on the board of any medical facility will not even be able to speak out about any political issues mentioned above or any other political issues whatsoever that disagree with the government in any way! That’s right NOTHING political in any way that goes against whatever the government is proposing or wanting to do. Even at home, at church, or sitting around the table at a local restaurant, talking about political issues or taking a stand about what they believe is right politically would all be in violation! It does not matter whether it remotely has to do with healthcare or not. The law says that they will also be charged with a crime, fined, and lose their jobs and license to work in health care just as the professional nurses listed above if they AT ANY TIME WHATSOEVER publicly support or oppose ANY political party, let anyone openly know of their beliefs and stance on a philosophy or issue in an election, engage in ANY TYPE OF POLITICAL ACTIVITY to affect the outcome of any government activity, campaign on behalf of a specific candidate or issue, or attempt to lobby the the government for any type of policy changes!!!

Yes, that is right these citizens of the United States who will know more about what is actually occurring in our hospitals than anyone else will be charged criminally, lose their jobs, and on the second offense their license to ever get another job in the medical field again should they attempt to let us know their beliefs, thoughts, or feelings in relation to what the government might be doing for or against the health and welfare of its citizens!

Am I wrong, or is this an assault on the freedom of speech and seemingly an attempt by the government to silence its citizens and potentially keep the rest of us ignorant of anything our government might try to impose upon our healthcare system no matter how extreme??? Folks, if we let this happen to those providing our healthcare who will be next? Is the Constitution something these law makers are ready to literally rip to shreds? Who would have thought in our lifetime any elected official in the USA would have the nerve and lack of shame to openly write up such a law which goes against the very fabric and foundation of our democracy?

…..Okay, the situation outlined above is true with one exception; it has nothing to do with hospitals or health care. It is real and it’s a law that has been proposed this session by some in our state legislature. Just insert schools and any school property wherever hospitals are mentioned. Insert teachers or anyone else working for schools in place of the nurses mentioned. Then replace doctors, hospital administrators, and board members with school superintendents and school board members. Make those changes to refer to our education system instead of our healthcare system and you have the bill being proposed to be adopted as law in Mississippi. Yes, it is real. No, the description above about what will be a criminal offense and the penalties for such an offense is not being exaggerated to prove a point.

Simply click the link below to read the bill for yourself:

-Clint Stroupe

It’s A Wonderful Life, School Choice, & Sticking Together

It's a Wonderful Life


GEORGE:    Now, just remember that this thing isn’t as black as it appears.

As George speaks, sirens are heard passing in the street below.  The crowd turn to the windows, then back to George.

GEORGE:    I have some news for you, folks. I’ve just talked to old man Potter, and he’s guaranteed cash payments at the bank. The bank’s going to reopen next week.

ED:    But, George, I got my money here.

CHARLIE:    Did he guarantee this place?

GEORGE:    Well, no, Charlie. I didn’t even ask him.  We don’t need Potter over here.

Mary and Ernie have come into the room during this scene.

Mary stands watching silently. 

CHARLIE:    I’ll take mine now.

GEORGE:    No, but you… you… you’re thinking of this place all wrong.  

As if I had the money back in a safe. The money’s not here

Your money’s in Joe’s house…

(to one of the men)

…right next to yours. And in the Kennedy house, and Mrs. Macklin’s house, and a hundred others. Why, you’re lending them the money to build, and then, they’re going to pay it back to you as best they can.

Now what are you going to do? Foreclose on them?

TOM:    I got two hundred and forty-two dollars in here, and two hundred and forty-two dollars isn’t going to break anybody.

GEORGE:    (handing him a slip) Okay, Tom. All right. Here you are. You sign this. You’ll get your money in sixty days.

TOM:    Sixty days?

GEORGE:    Well, now that’s what you agreed to when you bought your shares.

There is a commotion at the outer doors.

A man (Randall)comes in and makes his way up to Tom.

RANDALL:    Tom… Tom, did you get your money?

TOM:    No.

RANDALL:    Well, I did. Old man Potter’ll pay fifty cents on the dollar for every share you got.

(shows bills)

CROWD:    Fifty cents on the dollar!

RANDALL:    Yes, cash!

TOM:    (to George) Well, what do you say?

GEORGE:    Now, Tom, you have to stick to your original agreement. Now give us sixty days on this.

TOM:    (turning to Randall) Okay, Randall.

Tom starts out…

A few other people start for the door. George vaults over the counter quickly, speaking to the people.

GEORGE:    Tom! Tom! Randall! Now wait… now listen… now listen to me.

I beg of you not to do this thing. If Potter gets hold of this Building and Loan there’ll never be another decent house built in this town. He’s already got charge of the bank.  He’s got the bus line. He’s got the department. And now he’s after us.  Why? Well, it’s very simple. Because we’re cutting in on his business, that’s why.  And because he wants to keep you living in his slums and paying the kind of rent he decides.

 The people are still trying to get out, but some of them have stood still, listening to him. George has begun to make an impression on them.

GEORGE:    Joe, you lived in one of his houses, didn’t you? Well, have you forgotten?  Have you forgotten what he charged you for that broken-down shack?

(to Ed)

Here, Ed. You know, you remember last year when things weren’t going so well, and you couldn’t make your payments. You didn’t lose your house, did you? Do you think Potter would have let you keep it?

(turns to address the room again)

Can’t you understand what’s happening? Don’t you see what’s happening? Potter isn’t selling. Potter’s buying! And why? Because we’re panicky and he’s not.  That’s why. He’s picking up some bargains.  Now, we can get this thing all right. We’ve got to stick together, though. We’ve got to have faith in each other.

– It’s a Wonderful Life (1946)



The scene outlined above is one of my favorites from one of my favorite Christmas films, It’s a Wonderful Life.  George is, of course, making the case why the individual member of the community who is being served by the local building and loan must not decide to pull their funds out at once or else the whole institution will collapse.  George is having a hard time convincing the individuals to think larger than themselves and to consider the institution and what it provides to the community.  I found myself mentally coming back to this particular scene as I thought about the recent efforts to push so-called “school choice” in Mississippi.  I believe this particular scene in the movie provides us with great insight into our present situation in Mississippi public education by illustrating the main elements of the “school choice” movement in regards to motivation, action, and consequences.

In the film, there is a “run” on the building and loan by many of the customers with deposit accounts (checking and savings).  The “building and loan” which Bailey managed was basically a small community bank which shareholders throughout the community owned.  The customers in the building and loan were the actual shareholders as all had a stake in it.  This is in contrast to the larger bank in town which was run mainly by Mr. Potter.  The “building and loan” in the film was designed to serve the community by reinvesting funds back into the community.  While in the film, the bank’s primary function was to maximize profits. At the moment of the “run” on the building and loan, many of the customers with deposit accounts had no loans from the building and loan.  But, when they needed its lending services in the past, it was the only option which could meet their lending needs by providing loans for quality homes at fair and reasonable interest rates.  In effect, the building and loan was a sort of social insurance to the whole community when and if they had a need for it.  Yet this insurance could only exist by all members of the group sticking together and staying in the “pool” of customers, some borrowing money and many more depositing money which the building and loan used to make the loans.  With the recent push by lobbying groups and politicians to increase “school choice” by enabling per student tax dollars to follow the student and flow into alternative charter or private schools, it seems especially important to remind taxpayers of how their local, public school provides a form of educational insurance to meet the sometimes extreme needs of students much like Bailey’s Building and Loan met its community’s financial needs.

At this point, I believe we all know how the “school choice” system (or scheme) works.  Schools are funded by the state based upon each student who attends.  The state has a certain amount it gives to the public school district per individual child enrolled to educate students in the district.  “School choice” seeks to allow that money to be used to fund tuition at a non-public school by giving the child a voucher or tax credit to spend based upon this money.  the charter or private school then receives this per student funding. If the amount of state reimbursement is $3,500/year and one student left to attend a non-public school, that $3,500/year money would flow to the non-public school which the child chose to attend.  These funds would thus be diverted from the public school in that community and would essentially be cut from its budget or the shared budget of all public schools from state funding.  This sounds perfectly reasonable on the surface.  I mean, if the state gives $3,500/year to educate a child, then what does it matter if the money and that child leave the public school?  The school where the child enrolls gets the money and one might think this will simply reimburse the charter/private school for the cost of his or her education.  However, there is only one problem with that logic, and this problem rests in one simple word, “average.”

Funding amounts per student are based upon averages, not real dollar amounts required to educate a particular child.  This key difference can be illustrated by using a business analogy.  Imagine you work for a company as a full-time (40+ hours per week) employee.  However, this company has only ten full-time employees, counting you, with many more being part-time (less than 20 hours per week).  In fact, the company works a total of twenty-five part-time employees in comparison to the ten full-time.  At the end of the week it is pay day and the company has a meeting when it is time to give out the checks.  The boss tells all employees there has been a slight change in the way everyone will be paid this week.  Instead of different check amounts, all employees will now make the exact same for their week of work.  Both, full-time and part-time regardless of experience or any other factor will make the exact same.  This is, of course, perfectly fair from the bosses perspective because the exact same amount is being paid out by management this week as the week before.  The only difference is that now everyone will make the “average” rate of pay calculated per employee.  Naturally, you and the other nine full-time employees would be very supportive of this change, correct?  No, both common sense and fairness require the pay to not be based upon an “average.”  As you can see, in the real world of dollars and cents, the average is good for very little other than having a mathematical conversation.

Likewise, the school district is reimbursed on this same average amount to pay for the expenses to provide a free and appropriate education for each child.  However, the cost of such an education can vary a great deal from this average.  The child who has autism and requires intensive therapies by specialized staff during the day requires much more to educate than this average.  The child from a poor family who has moved eight times during the last year and who stays for hours by herself every evening as her parents go to their second job will probably require greater help to stay caught up in reading than a child without these disadvantages.  This help will require more money for the interventionists and tutors who work with her in a small group while the other students are all working in the regular classroom.  There are countless other examples of students who require more resources to educate during the day than other students.  Students without these special situations, who are able to keep up in the regular classroom without extra help, require much less funding to receive a quality education than these others.  However, the average sees all of these children the same in regards to the cost of their education.

To return to the movie analogy, if you are fortunate enough to have a child who requires no additional help to keep up and receive a quality education, you are much like the large group of deposit account holders at the building and loan.  The average amount of dollars which follow your child more than cover the cost of your child’s education.  What happens to these excess funds that exceed the cost of your child’s education?  The excess amount funds the needs of the other students within the school district who have educational needs which require more money than their average amount is able to afford.  Those students with these extra needs are like those who borrow money from the Bailey Building and Loan to obtain decent housing or to cover expenses.  Just as George told those depositors in the film, your money is not in a safe the back of the building, “your money is in Joe’s house.”  The building and loan was a cooperative organization with all of its members depending on the one another to provide enough funding for the common benefit and to provide a sort of insurance against the risk of needing a loan in the future at reasonable terms and being unable to get it.  Just like you as the parent of the child who is educated without the extra services with their expenses, your child is in effect paying for the education of the other children since his or her educational services cost less.  However, the exchange is that when you have your next child and that child is born with Down Syndrome, that child will now receive the same “insurance coverage” from the excess funds provided by their counterparts in the school district who do not require their full “average” funding to meet their needs.  The funding following your child is not in the back room or the school bank account; the funding following your child is literally in the child across the room or down the hall.

If you are with me thus far, you can see how the public schools function as the same type of cooperative providing needed services and risk protection for all children in the state just as the building and loan provided for the needs and protection from risk for the members of the community of Bedford Falls.  However, there is another institution which we have a need to recognize in this analogy.  That is Potter’s bank.  Potter’s bank in the story is an institution driven by profits primarily for Mr. Potter and whatever other few shareholders the bank possesses.  This is the situation with many of the “charter schools” which operate for a profit in states where “school choice” is being implemented.  Many of these companies are for-profit businesses which seek to educate children for less than the money reimbursed by the state and keep the remainder as profit.  How do they do this?  Are they really that much more efficient than the public schools?  While there is no doubt there are examples of waste out of the thousands and thousands of public schools in our country, efficiency is not behind the potential profits of the charter/private school receiving average student reimbursement from the state in a “school choice” scenario.  No, the secret formula of their profits lies again in one word, “average.”  The students who attend the charter or private school are not the students who require the greatest needs and with those needs the greater expenses.  While there are many reasons and ways that these schools only end up enrolling these students with less expensive needs, they are too lengthy to go into here.  However, in short, charter and private schools traditionally market themselves to parents based upon greater and more rigorous academics in preparation for college. However, as you might imagine, for many parents of students with special needs children is not their chief concern.  These parents of special needs children are much more likely to be more concerned with life skills and the abilities which allow independent living. There are also financial aspects which allow children with less financially stable home situations who are more likely to be behind their peers due to stress and less time available for their parents to be provide academic help at home to be filtered out of the charter school enrollees. Many, if not most, charter or private schools do not provide free transportation and transporting a student to and from school by car requires greater expenses on the part of parents and the time off work to provide this transportation. Through these and many other “filters” charter or private schools end up with a pool of students who are generally more affluent, more involved with their student’s education, or a combination of both of these traits.  Thus, charter schools are like Potter’s bank, they desire to have the cash depositors (students who can be educated with less expense) to bring their money (the average state reimbursement which follows the student) from the building and loan (the public school) and put in into Potter’s bank (the charter or private school).

If the “run” on the bank happens, the deposit account holders will go to Potter’s bank taking their funds leaving only those with loans at the Bailey Building and Loan.  I think we all know what happens to the Bailey Building and Loan in this scenario, it collapses unable to provide the loan services it needs to those customers without the capital funds of the depositors.  The only way the Bailey Building and Loan would not collapse in this scenario would be to have a sudden infusion of funds allowing it to still provide loans.  Essentially, someone like the government would have to bail out the building and loan to keep it from closing altogether.  I think we all have enough common sense to know who foots the bill when the government has to bail someone out, you the taxpayer.  Unless you are willing to allow the building and loan to collapse, much more money will be spent propping it up financially while still sending the average funding to the charter/private school to make its profits than ever was required before the charter siphoned off the children whose education is less expensive to provide.  This is the reason “school choice” with tax money following the student into the accounts of the charter/private school, if allowed to continue unhindered will inevitably result in public school districts either closing their doors or requiring huge infusions of taxpayer cash to cover the actual education expenses of the students who are left (the students with the greatest needs).  Yes, money is made in “school choice” schemes, but the money is made on the back of the taxpayer and goes into the pocket of the company operating the charter/private school.

The crisis scene of It’s a Wonderful Life ends on a happy note as most of the community members with money in the building and loan realize the sense in what George is telling them.  They see that they are investors and partners in a cooperative partnership with the other community members providing resources and opportunities when and if they need the services of the institution.  This type of partnership cannot be accomplished without everyone paying into the pool, both those who need the greater services and those who do not.  My friends, we are all taxpayers, we have no choice in the matter and our state constitution mandates that all children will receive a free education.  Therefore, we cannot opt out of paying for this education for each and every child.  The only question is whether we want to invest these tax funds into the students who need the services and into our community members, or whether we will give the investment to Mr. Potter and his handful of shareholders and abandon the cooperative we have together.  Make no mistake, the end result in years to come can only be the ending of education for every child or even more money required to fund the education of children needing higher than average expenses while at the same time maintaining the profit margin of the charter/private school shareholders.

-Clint Stroupe

The Process vs The Results: The Chief Philosophical Divide in Modern Education

“It doesn’t matter if a cat is black or white, so long as it catches mice.”

~Deng Xiaoping


Thanks to the magic of a DVR, I am postponing the beginning of the Division I National Championship football game for a few minutes in order to bypass some of the commercials.  As I sit here waiting and thinking about the upcoming game, I have to consider who I will cheer for in the game.  For me, some of this determination has to do with which of the two coaches I find myself agreeing with, liking, and sympathizing with more than the other.  In regards to these coaches, Saban and Swinney, who do you believe is the better coach?  I mean if you had to simply decide who does the best job coaching a team, which one has the edge in your mind?  I think most of us, if we are honest, would find ourselves gravitating toward one or the other who in our own view epitomizes more of the characteristics we believe are essential in a truly great coach.  Now ask yourself another question, did you find yourself only discussing the results of the coaches’ professional practice (such as wins/losses, national championships, number of players getting drafted, league championships, etc.) or did you find yourself also discussing characteristics of the coaches’ professional process (such as demeanor, practice methods, discipline, etc.)  I would be willing to bet for most of us to varying degrees the “process” elements creep into our analysis of how “good” these men are at coaching in spite of the quantitative results their methods yielded.

You have Dabo Swinney, head coach of Clemson, a man who literally wears his heart on his sleeve.  Swinney is the classic underdog in many ways.  He took the reins of Clemson quite few years ago as a midseason interim coach who no one really believed had what it took to be the head of that program.  But, winning a rivalry game against South Carolina and becoming bowl eligible, made this man, who seemed totally unashamed to show his emotions through his heartfelt speeches and postgame comments, somehow the head of a major program.  However, it seemed one of those situations where no one believed he would really make it into a long term success.  Instead, giving him the job just seemed like an obligation on the part of the Clemson higher ups for winning games that he was not supposed to win and seemingly capturing the heart of his players in the process.  Swinney is the type of coach who you can picture literally hugging his players with tears in his eyes either overcome with joy and/or grief.

Then you have Nick Saban, the high profile, hard nose, process oriented coach of the Alabama Crimson Tide.  Saban is known for his tough manner.  Whereas, Swinney predominantly displays “positive” emotions publicly, Saban’s emotional outbursts are generally toward the other end of the spectrum.  Hardly ever cracking a smile when involved with “the process” of his football coaching, Saban has won multiple national championships at two different schools.  Saban is stoic in his actions for the most part, except when chastising those around him.  He is methodical and tough, the two qualities which conventional wisdom traditionally has said that successful coaches should possess.

Yes, the contrast between these two coaches is stark.  Some will side with Swinney as the preferred coach as the positive follower of Jon Gordon who they see as a positive, inspirational leader.  Others will side with Saban as the disciplined, coach and leader who, at least publicly, seems to intimidate those around him into giving their best performances.  However, there can only be one winner of the national championship.  So the question will be at the end of the game, which will matter more as far as judging the coach, the one whose process we most agree with or the one who produces the end result of a championship trophy over his head?

While I will ultimately have to root for Alabama as an SEC school, it is not without reservation as my heart tells me to root for Clemson and their coach because of their heart and seemingly their lack of respect by everyone around them.  These differences and my personal feelings aside, I feel that Saban and Swinney illustrate one of the fundamental questions about how we choose to evaluate the job leaders and professionals do in their fields, the question of which is more important “the process” or “the results.”  Especially for those in education today, one of the fundamental questions is whether we will choose to emphasize the results or whether we will emphasize the steps taken to yield results as being the most important.  In my personal view, this “process versus results” choice is the most important question we are wrestling with today in education.

Education has traditionally been dominated by a “process” oriented approach.  Whether you believe in a top-down leadership model (which still has a stranglehold on public education in many areas of the country) or a more diffuse form of collegial leadership (which is advocated more today), both approaches emphasize “the process.”  Leaders or peers pop in to “evaluate” other teachers based upon the process they observe.  These evaluations factor heavily, if not exclusively in some cases, on the judgment of whether a teacher is doing his or her job in the classroom.  How do we judge professional learning community (PLC) development and usage in the school?  Is it not via observation?  Almost every measure that professors in college teacher education programs, education authors, and speakers advocate as a means of evaluation is ultimately “process” oriented.  Clearly, the insiders of public education have traditionally and still do emphasize “the process” even though the characteristics of this process may have changed in their criteria over the years.

On the other hand are those who choose to emphasize “the results.”  Much like the pragmatic view attributed to Deng Xiaoping of China, they do not care what color the cat may be, as long as it catches mice.  The desire by many, often outside of professional education circles, to move away from “process” oriented means of evaluation of teaching effectiveness and towards a “results” oriented means of evaluation is the basis of many of our so-called “accountability models” and the formalized “high stakes” testing we have seen implemented over the years.  To the “results” oriented person the methodology one uses does not matter (as long as it is ethical and legal), it is just the final learning outcome measured in the student which matters.  Underpinning the “results” oriented mindset, is the assumption that no one is able to fully judge what process may work for one particular administrator/teacher for one particular group of students at one particular time as being the best simply by measuring how it meets certain “process” criteria.  Instead, totally different approaches could be used depending upon the individual circumstance and both could be judged as being equal, as long as both produced the desired result in measurable increases of learning in students.

In the near future, I hope to explore this issue in greater depth.  However, I thought the contrast tonight between these two coaches’ approach made for a nice introduction to this topic.  As you watch the game tonight and find yourself evaluating these two coaches, ask yourself which is ultimately the most important criteria in your judgment:  the process of coaching you most agree with or the results they produce regardless of steps taken to get there?  Which side you find the most important may actually tell something about how you view teaching effectiveness as well.  But, do not forget both of these men have made it to the pinnacle of their sport this season and yet both have done so employing very different philosophies and methodologies.  Do you think it would be best to evaluate them based upon results or based upon the characteristics we have predetermined in our mind which “should” yield the desired results?

More to come on this “process oriented” versus “results oriented” approach in public education in the near future…

-Clint Stroupe

2014-2015 Mississippi English II PARCC Assessment Results Ranked by School

In the same vein as the other assessment results, the following are the PARCC English II assessment results from the 2014-2015 school year ranked by individual school.  Unlike the Algebra I test results, English II results are straight-forward in they only apply to one school since the course and the end-of-course assessment are only taken on the high school level in contrast to Algebra I which can be taken at the middle school level.

The results ranked by school can be accessed by clicking on the following link:

2014-2015 Rankings by MS School – PARCC Eng II Assessment

As with all PARCC assessments given for the first (and only) time in the 2014-2015 school year, there is no way to determine growth.  Therefore, we know nothing about the level of achievement students started the course exhibiting and only know where they ended.  Since such growth data is unavailable, the only data we have are the final end-of-course scores.  The data is purely for informational purposes, and I hope those interested find it useful.  As always, please let me know if you spot any issues.


Clint Stroupe

2014-2015 MS Algebra I PARCC Assessment Results Ranked by School

Judging from the interest in the other assessments, I thought perhaps someone might also like to look at the secondary level PARCC end-of-course assessment results for Algebra I. They can be accessed by clicking the following link:

2014-2015 Rankings by MS School – PARCC Alg I Assessment

However, more caution should be used in examining these Algebra I PARCC results than with any others listed.  There are several extremely important differences in how the Algebra I assessment is given and reported that make it quite unique.

Caveats of the 2014-2015 PARCC Algebra I results:

Algebra I is unique in that students may take it during the middle school years (typically the 8th grade).  These middle school students who took Algebra I in 2014-2015, all took the end-of-course PARCC Algebra I assessment just as their high school counterparts did.  In many school districts across the state, the decision is made to allow students who have demonstrated advanced achievement in 7th grade mathematics to take Algebra I in the 8th grade in order to “get a jump” on the accumulation of high school credits.  This “jump” might pay off by freeing up the student to take more advanced electives, dual-credit/enrollment, or AP courses later in high school.  Why is this important when analyzing results reported by school?

  1. In a situation where a district has a separate elementary, junior high, or middle school which includes an 7th or 8th grade and has Algebra I testers, those results will show up under the elem/jr. high/middle school where they took it.  This has a two-fold effect.  First, the school with the junior high test takers will typically have extremely high test scores as the more advanced students are typically enrolled in the course (with some exceptional cases at schools where the total opposite might be taking place for strategic reasons with polar opposite results).  Second, the school where those students typically move on to the 9th grade (the “high school”) will typically now have extremely lower Algebra I scores on average due to the fact that the upper achieving students have already taken the course in the 8th grade at the elem/jr. high/middle school where they were the year before.  Thus, middle schools will typically have extremely higher scores in comparison to all other school types.
  2. In some school districts these extremes do not take place at all and results are not skewed due to the “split” between taking Algebra I in the middle school grades.  This occurs for three typical reasons.  First, some districts have a blanket policy that no student, regardless of achievement, will be able to take Algebra I before 9th grade.  Thus, in those schools all students’ scores will fall under the high school in which they enter the 9th grade.  The only exception to this is a few schools across the state that include the 9th grade in their middle school or have a middle school made only of 9th graders.  This 9th grade middle school scenario is extremely rare in Mississippi, but it does exist causing further skewing of results when attempting to compare schools head to head.  Second, there are a fair number of high schools which include 7th – 12th grades.  In these combined 7th – 12th high schools, no skewing takes place as all Algebra I test takers are reported under the one school name regardless of the grade they take the course.  Third, there are a minority of K-12 schools still left across the state.  These schools have the same situation as the 7th – 12th grade high schools listed previously, in that they will not have skewing of results as takes place in the “caveat #1” schools listed above.
  3. In an ideal situation, one might compare three categories of schools’ Algebra I results.  The first category being elem/jr. high/middle schools with students taking Algebra I in the 7th/8th grade.  The second category being high schools which receive students from those type of elem/jr. high/middle schools which allow Algebra I to be taken.  The third category being made up of K-12 attendance centers and 7th – 12th high schools whose scores reflect all of their Algebra I students regardless of grade level.
  4. In the real world, these categories must be taken into consideration when comparing schools (district comparisons are not affected because all students regardless of grade level taking Algebra I end up under the umbrella of the particular district’s results).  However, attempting to show these distinctions when examining statewide results is impossible without the state supplying information about each schools grade levels (and perhaps even their philosophy or rules regarding students taking Algebra I).  Since my ranking rely on publicly available data, I have to use my own judgement as to what category a school might fall under.

Due to these very important caveats, I have made my best attempt to show this distinction of results by making two categories for ranking schools.  The first category includes K-12 attendance centers and all high schools that have a 9th grade (including both 7th-12th & 9th-12th high schools).  The second category includes elementary, junior high, and high schools which do not have a 9th grade.  These categories are not perfect as some schools (such as those very rare 9th grade only schools) have to be lumped into one category or the other even though they are unique situations.  Also, some schools names may not reflect their actual grade levels (such as Nowhereville High School which despite its name is actually a K-12 attendance center) resulting in me accidentally placing them in an inappropriate category.  However, I feel the attempt must be made to show at least these two category distinctions or else the results would make little sense (with middle schools virtually dominating the top half of the rankings for the reasons listed above).

Despite the long-winded dissertation, I hope these results provide information which you find beneficial.


Clint Stroupe

Fall 2014-Spring 2015 Mississippi Kindergarten Readiness Growth Rankings by School

I thought some might be interested in examining the statewide growth rankings by individual school for last year’s assessments to measure Kindergarten readiness given at the beginning and the end of the Kindergarten year.  This information can be viewed by clicking on the following link:

2014-2015 Rankings by Growth MS Kindergarten Readiness Assessment by School

This information is nice in that it gives us “growth” information to attempt to see what degree of learning might have occurred over the school year.  This is in contrast to the far less desirable end-of-course or end-of-year scores which give us no indicator of what level of achievement the students were at when they actually began the course.

However, there are several problems with attempting to draw too many conclusions from these rankings or the amount of growth used to determine these rankings.  The 2014-2015 Mississippi Kindergarten readiness assessments had several characteristics which absolutely need to be considered when looking at this growth and drawing any conclusions from it:

  1.  This was the first year these assessments were given.  During the first year there can be many unforeseen problems (such as technology limitations/problems giving the assessments at particular schools, lack of prior experience using technology by the students at a particular school which might affect scores from reflecting actual student knowledge, etc.).  These unforeseen circumstances tell us nothing of the students’ learning in reading, but can skew results.  Usually, after a new testing program is started such “first year hiccups” can be alleviated in the following years as districts and schools make adjustments to compensate for such occurrences.
  2. This assessment is very, very similar to the STAR Early Literacy test produced by Renaissance Learning which has the contract to produce this test for Mississippi.  Therefore, the test is not designed to assess students who are already quite literate by the end of the year.  Yet, in many of our schools a small number of Kindergarten students are often moved up from STAR Early Literacy to the more advanced, STAR Reading assessments to determine growth because of their high Early Literacy scores.  This is important to note because high-performing students might literally “top out” on this readiness assessment and not show significant growth by the end of the year as they hit the “ceiling” of this assessment’s design.  Several students hitting such a ceiling would adversely affect “growth” since little or none could be detected in these students who have exceeded the design of the assessment.  This is important to remember, especially in schools that show higher levels of average beginning and ending scores.
  3. The information presented here is for raw scale score growth.  It does not tell us how close the students were on average to hitting the appropriate growth “target” based upon their individual beginning score.  This is important because students (on average) achieve very different magnitudes of raw or scale score growth depending upon their beginning score.  The same assessments given over multiple years and/or the same assessments given to large numbers of students across the country can allow such “growth targets” to be determined giving students and teachers an average amount of growth which would be statistically “typical” for the student to achieve based upon the initial beginning of year score by the student.  For example, hypothetically students beginning the year with a score of 500 might “on average” grow to a score of 674 by the end of the year (174 point growth in raw score).  Alternatively, a student beginning the year at a 674 might “on average” grow to a score of only 710 (36 point growth in raw score).  In this hypothetical situation, a classroom of students who all began the year with a 674 and ended the year with a 725 (49 points of raw score growth) would have “done better” than a classroom of students who all began the year with a 500 and ended the year all scoring a 600 (100 points of raw score growth).  Those in the class beginning at 674 scored far more growth than what would be typical for their peers compared to those in the class beginning with a 500 whose growth was not as high as their peers, even though in terms of pure score growth (such as the data contained in this ranking) the 674 class did not have as much pure score growth!  Instead of magnitude of score growth, this comparison to an average “growth target,” based upon the beginning of year score would be a much better indicator of learning progress.  Such analysis and comparison to what is typical is important to factor into account before drawing too many conclusions about one school outperforming another in terms of growth, especially if those schools had very different average Fall (beginning of year) scores.

All of these factors should certainly be considered for the 2014-2015 growth results.  As the state, hopefully, sticks with the same or very similar assessments over the next years more data could allow some of these issues to be addressed and perhaps some changes might be made to address the issue of this “top end ceiling,” if growth of all students is truly the “target.”


Clint Stroupe

2015 Mississippi PARCC 3-8 Math & Lang Arts Rankings by School

I have compiled the PARCC results for Mississippi in Language Arts and Mathematics for grades 3rd – 8th by school and ranked them by percent scoring in the top two levels.  Using the percent in the top two levels seems to be the preferred method of determining the percent scoring a “Proficient-type” score, which is the goal score range.  I thought some might be interested in having the assessment results broken down by school in this fashion.  I feel pretty confident in the data at this point, but please let me know if you spot any errors.

Simply click the link below to access the ranking report:

2015 Mississippi PARCC Rankings


Clint Stroupe

*These rankings are for informational purposes only.  Growth information is not available due to the fact this is the first and only time the PARCC assessments will be given in Mississippi.  Growth is by far more valuable information on determining whether learning took place and to what degree rather than end-of-year scores only which only tell us where students at a school “ended up” without knowledge of where they “began.”  However, such growth information is not and will not be available for the 2014-2015 Mississippi PARCC assessments.

Assessment Data: Best Friend or the Worst Enemy of Efficiency & Instruction

I like data.  There I said it, and I am well aware of how odd that statement might make me sound.  But, I do enjoy working with assessment data in regards to schools and student achievement.  Accurate assessment data used wisely for this purpose is both exciting and invigorating in the valuable information which can be gleaned from it for better instruction.  Can the data sometimes be used in a fashion that misleads?  Sure.  Can the use of testing data sometimes lead to an overemphasis on testing and “teaching the test”?  When mishandled, yes.  But, when used correctly, I think accurate and reliable assessment data is the clearest, most objective way to measure student learning, especially when looking at a group of students.  Such data can give us valuable insight into what we might not otherwise notice on the individual student level as well.  However, there are many ways administrators, lawmakers, members of the public, and teachers, while attempting to use assessment data for noble purposes, might cause inadvertent problems through the misuse of this data.

The assessment data I am referring to here is derived from standards based assessments given in a standardized format.  Ideally, these tests are robust in nature, assessing students at a variety learning levels with an emphasis on higher order thinking skills.  Many of the modern assessments have incorporated performance based tasks and essay style questions which are very helpful in identifying the proficiency of students to perform tasks at these higher order levels.  Most assessments have at this point shifted from paper and pencil based testing to some form of computerized testing.  Some of these computerized assessments also have “adaptive” elements which scale up or down pulling from a bank of questions on various levels of knowledge based upon whether a student answers a question correct (which tells the assessment to give a more difficult question next) or answers it incorrect (which tells the assessment to lower the difficulty of the next question) to “zero in” on the student’s level or knowledge.  Such adaptive assessments are a particular favorite of mine as far as their ability to generate even more accurate measures of where a student is truly performing than traditional, non-adaptive assessments.  These traditional assessments have a predetermined set of questions and/or tasks and lack the ability to deviate from this predetermined structure.  Thus, with traditional, non-adaptive assessments the data gained is of little value to assess where a student is performing if he or she is significantly below the level of knowledge the test was designed to assess or significantly higher.  Regardless of these significant differences, all of these assessments can be referred to as “standardized” tests.  “Standardized testing” has almost become a dirty word with many both inside and outside of professional education.  However, I feel that this is a result of the mishandling of the data and/or the preparation for the assessment rather than “standardized testing” in and of itself being something bad.

Some standardized testing is simply mandated by the state.  For these state mandated tests, the local district has no choice about whether to give the assessment or not.  Instead, the state mandates when to give these assessments and the manner of procedures to follow when giving it.  To the best of my knowledge, prior to the 2014-2015 academic year, these state mandated tests (at least the ones used in Mississippi since the passage of the No Child Left Behind law) have consisted of one summative round of testing at the end of the course.  For the high school level courses which were selected by the state for mandated testing (Algebra I, Biology I, English II, & US History), these occurred at either the end of the semester course in December (for schools using block scheduling) or prior to the end of year (for schools using traditional yearlong course scheduling).  For grades 3-8 (Language Arts, Mathematics, & 5th/8th Science), the testing was always at the end of the year.  During Mississippi’s one year stent with PARCC testing during the 2014-2015 year, the testing was broken into parts which occurred with more frequency than the single end of course testing given in prior years.  This type of state mandated testing for all intents and purposes is “summative” in nature, meaning it is used to judge the overall learning which occurred during the course of study and was not used to actually improve learning.  State mandated “summative” testing was like having a taste of the cake after it was baked.  The cooking was done by that time and only the final product was being examined and evaluated for quality.

Other standardized tests are chosen by the individual teacher, school, or district.  These tests are usually given periodically throughout the semester and year for “formative” purposes.  Formative assessments can be thought of as “inspecting the batter” periodically while still engaged in the cake cooking process.  This “batter tasting” can be used by the cook (teacher) to form a better plan for obtaining the desired appearance and taste in the final cake.  Adjustments in proportion of ingredients, additions of ingredients, omission of ingredients, the intensity of mixing, and all of the steps in the cooking process can still be altered as the results are obtained (via sight, taste, or touch) along the way.  The teacher gets feedback from these assessments to gauge student progress in order to make adjustments to improve learning based upon the student’s needs according to the assessment results.  While I lump all of these standardized formative assessments together as voluntary, this may be somewhat misleading.  The state mandates that some of these tests be given during the year as a “universal screener” to detect students that are having problems making appropriate academic gains and allowing the school and teacher to provide different instruction to the student to “intervene” in the current trajectory of learning to obtain a better result.  However, even though “universal screener” tests are mandated, they are at least in theory still meant for this “formative” function of altering instruction “on the fly” while the semester or year is still in progress.  Other standardized testing for supposed “formative” use might be referred to as “practice tests” modeled after the end of year, state mandated assessments or “progress monitoring” in reference to the fact that the students progress toward normal growth in academic achievement is occurring at the expected rate.

The first and perhaps most common, issue with assessment data is the overuse of testing to obtain such data.  To clarify, I am referring to the constant flow of testing which takes place in some schools and districts, which has little, if any, practical usage for instruction.  In summative assessments mandated by the state, this was not a huge issue when only end of semester or end of year assessments were mandated.  During the PARCC era, the argument could be made that the increase in hours required for the PARCC assessments throughout the year was an undue burden which took away instructional time, but these were tests which the district, school, and teacher had no real control over as they were mandated by the state.  “Universal screeners,” also mandated by the state, could be argued to be slightly burdensome as well with their periodic nature throughout the year.  But, when used properly with the teacher having the training to break apart the data and examine what it is telling him/her about the individual student and the class as a whole in regards to academic progress toward the end of course goal and to alter classroom instruction using the data as a guide, the “universal screener” could be a vital tool for the teacher to tailor instruction for greater effectiveness.  The same can be said for “progress monitoring” tests which often are the same type of test as the universal screener, but perhaps given at more frequent intervals during the year.   When such “progress monitoring” assessments are used properly by a properly motivated and trained teacher, they can be a formative tool to alter instruction to reach desired outcomes both for the individual student and the class as a whole.   What are commonly referred to as standardized “Practice tests” are preparation tests for the end of year assessment.  “Practice tests” like “progress monitoring” tests can be used in this formative process to alter classroom instruction for greater effectiveness while also giving the class a simulation of the end of year test.  Some schools or districts have also incorporated so-called “common assessments,” created through the collaboration of faculty to use as regular, nine weeks, or semester tests for formative purposes.  When used for their formative purposes these tests can all be useful, but formative assessments are really nothing that new.  Effective teachers have always used “formative assessments” to tailor their instruction in the past.  Whether it be via asking for a show of hands during a lesson to answer a quick question to gauge how many in the class understood the content enough to reach the proper answer, giving “daily grade” type work to see if the students could reach a desired level of performance while  still covering the topic or unit in question, or giving a “pre-test” before covering a new topic to determine the existing level of knowledge on a topic to determine how best to plan effectively to maximize learning with the individual or group, “formative” assessment has always been existed in classrooms where learning was maximized.  The only real difference from those examples of traditional, informal, formative assessments and the ones we have discussed here is that they were not quite in such a standardized format and perhaps not given in such a formal fashion.  But, despite this rosy picture in regards to these non-state mandated assessments being used for formative purposes, there still could be issues preventing these tests from being used effectively for their powerful, formative purpose to tailor instruction.

The most common mistake made for “progress monitoring” or “practice” testing is that the tests are given too close to the end of the course or semester.  For instance, a class is preparing to take the Algebra I test at the end of the year, then two weeks before the state mandated test is given the district/school/teacher decides to give a “practice test” and the results are given back to the teacher and students on the Monday prior to the end of year mandated assessment on Wednesday of the same week.  I think most people can see the major issue with this scenario.  The test results are of minimal, if any, benefit to the student or teacher in this scenario since the results came too late for significant changes to be made to instruction.  If results were in the hands of the teacher and students with sufficient time, real changes could be made which might alter the student’s outcome before the end of year.  For example, imagine the teacher receives the results back and the class as a whole shows a problem with quadratic functions or some other topic.  The teacher cannot effectively re-teach quadratic functions with essentially only one day (Tuesday) to go before the final assessment.  Whereas, if the test had been given three weeks prior and the results obtained three weeks before the final assessment, several lessons could be planned to re-teach, practice, assess, and maybe even re-teach again using still another different teaching method to help the group “master” this area of weakness in quadratic equations.  Instead, by making the data of little or no “formative” purpose due to the timing of the practice test, all the student, teacher, and school have in their hands is an advance preview of what the state results will be when they get them back.  Instead of “inspecting the batter,” they are simply cutting a tiny sliver from the cake to taste five minutes before it is done baking.  Little can be changed at that point to alter the outcome of the final product.  But, I suppose, you will get to see how it tastes a little earlier.  Sadly, a day or more of instructional time may have been missed in order to have this advance preview of results which has no formative value on tailoring instruction.

As hinted above, another problem with standardized “formative” assessments is that they are given too often during the actual class time.  For example, let us say that a standardized assessment being used for supposed “formative” purposes takes most of a 50-minute class period and covers a large swath of objectives for the course.  The decision is made to give two of these assessments per week in addition to the teacher’s normal testing schedule.  This single decision made a huge impact upon available instruction time, if the assessment is given during normal class time.  Not only has the cost to instructional time been large in this scenario, but if the assessment is designed to cover a broad amount of content and learning objectives for the course, much of the data is a waste in relation to the unit being covered.  Just giving the assessment has cost perhaps 50 hours of instructional time over the course of the year.  This might be 40% of the total instructional time available for the teacher to cover every bit of the course content over the span of the year (minus assemblies, absences, and the normal interruptions to instruction).  The information obtained via data has become of little use due to the overall loss of available instructional minutes.  Also, the teacher now has a steady stream of data to attempt to examine on a twice weekly basis.  Between breaking this data down twice weekly, attempting to then use it to plan the altered instruction, and the missing two days of instruction per week, the odds of the teacher having time to effectively examine the data in meaningful ways to alter instruction become exponentially smaller.  Standardized formative assessments must not occur with such repetition as to become overwhelming and undue burdens on instructional time.  Otherwise, all you end up with is a big pile of data which I suppose looks impressive on a “wall” or inserted into a presentation graph, but had no real impact on student learning.

In the above example, the insignificant value of these broad, instructional time consuming, standardized assessments for formative purposes can be alleviated in several ways without dropping the concept altogether.  First, narrow the scope of the assessments to reduce time spent testing and to make the data more meaningful for revising instruction.  By trimming the standardized assessment down to only assess the content currently being covered, the data is of a more manageable volume and directly applicable to the topics being covered during the week.  Second, the teacher should consider reducing other forms of assessment (the teacher’s regular testing schedule) which might be redundant to the standardized assessment.  Short daily quizzes might not be needed anymore considering the frequency of this twice-weekly testing.  Third, the teacher should attempt to schedule such assessments, if possible, during non-instructional time.  If students have study time every day, then perhaps a segment of it could be utilized for these assessments instead of taking time away from instruction.  Again, the concept of the standardized assessment, even at this exaggerated twice-weekly frequency, can be made of greater formative value by altering the variables mentioned and the many others the teacher has direct control over.  Although, I will be the first to admit such a twice-weekly schedule might simply have to be reduced to a more manageable and meaningful frequency.

Another issue with the use of data is the emphasis on overall achievement versus growth.  This is an area which has somewhat improved over the years, but I still see the mistake being made on a regular basis.  For example, a 3rd grade Language Arts teacher has 89% of her students scoring Level 4 or above (roughly the equivalent of the old Proficient & Advanced levels) on the end of year assessments, but another 3rd grade Language Arts teacher in the school has 70% of his students score a Level 4 or above.  Those examining the results data then make the statement that the 89% teacher “won” or is better at teaching Language Arts than the other teacher.  Such an assumption and statement based upon this limited amount of data is so ridiculous it almost defies description!  However, we still see such pronouncements made with unfortunate regularity.  Again, based upon this limited data which “appears” on the surface to show one teacher “winning” over the other, there is absolutely no way to draw any conclusion on teacher effectiveness!  Why?  You can only judge effectiveness of the individual teacher by having some assessment data as to how well the students were performing before (and hopefully during) the time the teacher had the student(s).  Without this prior “baseline” performance of the students, you have no idea whether any growth in student achievement and learning took place during the year.  Imagine, what if a beginning of the year assessment had shown that 95% of the first (supposed better) teacher’s students scored an equivalent of a Level 4 or greater at the start of the year?  Imagine, then that the same beginning of the year assessment data had shown 60% of the second (supposedly worse) teacher’s students scored an equivalent of a Level 4 or greater at the start of the year?  Who appears to really have had the greater effectiveness teaching 3rd grade Language Arts?  Would it not be the second teacher who seemed to have a greater positive impact on student achievement?  The second (supposed worse) teacher grew her students enough to raise 10% more of them to Level 4 or Level 5 by the end of the year while the first (supposed better) teacher had 6% of them drop from those top two levels during the same time?  Yes, of course!  The second year teacher was able to demonstrate growth.  The only clear way to legitimately make judgments upon performance of a group of students is to look at growth of the same students over time.  Ideally, although not always feasible, this pattern should occur over multiple years as well where the same teacher/school raises achievement among multiple cohorts of students over time before judging effectiveness.  Unfortunately, over and over, you still hear this error repeated with overall achievement being given as evidence of the effectiveness of instructional practices, the teacher, or the school itself instead of growth.

Is this meant to suggest there is no place for discussion of overall achievement?  Is growth the only thing worth examining?  What about situations where growth of the same students or a cohort is simply not available?  No, growth should be the main thing, but it is certainly not the only thing worth examining.  Growth should be the main goal for the student, teacher, and school as a whole.  Growth should also be considered the main indicator (among testing data metrics) to determine instructional effectiveness.  However, we often do not have sufficient data for judging such growth among the same student or cohort of students.  Take the ACT test which most students have taken by the end of their junior year.  Schools receive reports back from ACT which show the average score of students overall and in each testing area.  The reports also show what percentage of the school’s students whose scores are up to an acceptable level of college readiness (meaning the students can statistically be expected to succeed in specific freshman level college courses and do not need to take “remediation” courses).  However, in most schools, ACT testing is a one-time occurrence among a particular cohort (group) of students without a lower level version of the test taken to judge growth.   In the absence of such “real” growth data, the next best indicator in this case is the percentage of students who are deemed college ready over several years.  Why?  Because the average score report given to the school showing the average composite score and average subscore for each subject can be misleading.  The percent of students demonstrating college readiness would be valuable to look at over several years to determine an overall trend.  If for three years or more the percentage of students demonstrating college readiness on their scores increased in all areas, then one can begin to detect a trend which is moving in the desired direction.  While not perfect, if this trend continues over even more years, the school can feel a certain level of confidence that efforts in college academic preparation are probably yielding the desired result.  One year gains in the percentage demonstrating college readiness show nothing as this year’s group of juniors may be more naturally academically inclined and higher scoring than the last year’s group.  Two years of gains in a row could still be the result of multiple factors.  Two years of gains might indicate more effective instruction.  However, it might also reflect three groups with each latter group having students more naturally higher performing academically than the year prior.  But, consistent gains in this percentage beyond two years become increasingly less likely to be attributed to the random chance of naturally higher achieving students and more than likely are attributable to instructional efforts.  Each consecutive year that rises in this percentage occur increases the likelihood even more that it is not simply random chance of inherently higher performing groups of students.  On the subject of average ACT scores, another issue altogether is the fact that up until the 2014-2015 school year not every junior actually took the ACT as it was encouraged (not required) for only those students planning on attending college.  In addition, the ACT required a payment by the student for each test taking attempt (except in certain waiver situations).  Since Mississippi is now offering a free testing of the ACT and the state is requiring all students to take it, ACT score reports for the school will be of far more value and have greater reliability as an indicator of a school’s instructional effectiveness.

But, you might ask why I am giving little value to ACT average composite and average subscores?  If you notice, I did point to the percentage of students taking the test whose scores indicated a readiness for freshman level college coursework as the preferred indicator and not average scores/subscores.  The reason is that the average score is of little significance for instructional planning or to judge success of anything instructional.  Sure, it is great to be able to brag on your average scores being high or gaining over time.  I have even personally engaged in such bragging when the school I worked with had such gains in average scores.  However, average scores in general are of the least value of all testing data because they are so easily skewed.  To illustrate this, imagine there are two small schools (School A and School B) with senior classes of ten students each and all took the ACT last year.  School A has an average ACT score of 21 among all its senior class.  School B has an average score of 20 among its seniors.  The temptation would be to say that School A outperformed School B, after all it does have the higher average score.  Now, forgetting the main issue that the ACT at most schools has no baseline from which to determine growth, let us see why saying School A “outperformed” School B is misleading regardless and percentage of test takers meeting college readiness mentioned in the previous paragraph is by far preferable.  These averages do not show you that School A with the better average of 21 had the following student scores:  one student with 36, one student with 34, one student with 32, three students with 18, two students with 15, and two students with 10.  On the other hand, School B with the lower average of 20 had the following student scores:  one student with 29, four students with 20, and five students with 19.  Assuming for the sake of argument that a score of 19 is needed to attend the closest university, which school had the best performance based upon this one year in preparing its students?  What if this breakdown repeated itself in a similar fashion over several years?  School A had the highest average score, yet only 30% of its students scored high enough to gain college admission.  School B had the lowest average score, yet 100% of its students scored high enough to gain admission to the college.  I think it is without dispute that School B has the more desirable outcome and could be prouder (based on this one year’s results) of its college preparation instructional practices than School A.  Still, I cannot overemphasize; this would be even more valuable to draw conclusions from for evaluation purposes, if the trend kept occurring over multiple years.

This logic is why the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) scores released a few weeks ago which showed Mississippi 4th graders led the nation in gains since 1990 ( is important, but must be understood in its proper context.  First, Mississippi is still in the bottom tier on overall 4th grade reading scores meaning it is ranked near the bottom again in average achievement.  Second, Mississippi made more improvement over this length of time than any other state’s 4th graders tested in reading in the nation (on average).  Third, this was over multiple years (15).  Thus, the data in the article is not ideal as it does not track the same children over time (growth of a cohort of exiting3rd to 4th, then 4th to 5th, etc.)  The data in the article is also not on the next preferred level which would be the percentage of students who met the national average score (percentage achieving a specific target) and, even better, whether that percentage actually went up over time.  The data shows our average score (however the scores were distributed) went up more than the national average score went up over a ten year period.  Yes, it is an overall indicator of “good” things.  Yes, it is certainly better than a lack of such growth.  However, more information would be needed to see how these scores were distributed which could give us an indicator of how effective our instruction is at educating all students.  But, I will certainly “take it” as an overall positive indicator, despite its limitations.

The same can be said for the PARCC assessments taken in the 2014-2015 school year which were released a few weeks ago for high school Algebra I and English II tests.  The state rightfully emphasized two main figures.  First, the number of students scoring Level 4 or Level 5 on the assessment was the main indicator of desired performance.  This was very important considering the PARCC assessment had a number of states included and anything above a Level 4 demonstrated the student was on grade level not just based upon our judgment as one state.  Level 4 could be considered (in an extremely loose sense considering our old tests had a rather arbitrary division of performance levels with no national or multistate consideration of where these “cut scores” between levels occurred) the equivalent of Proficient on our old forms of state testing and Level 5 as the rough equivalent of Advanced.  The state accountability model, by which our schools are graded/ranked, emphasizes the level of students reaching these two levels as well with the goal being for 100% to reach Level 4 or above.  Also of note, there is no growth data available among the same students or even from the same school for these test results.  This is with good reason since it is the first time (and only time) the PARCC assessments have been used.  In the absence of growth, the next ideal thing to examine is the percentage reaching mastery (in this case grade level performance).  Thus, the percentage reaching Level 4 or Level 5 was the ideal way to assess schools using the available data.  Second, the state gave the percentage passing (in this case a Level 2 or above).  This figure is important as well since it demonstrated the percentage who met the minimum score level to pass the course without looking for additional factors for help.  The only problem with pass rate and why I prefer it to be the secondary consideration is that our goal as a state is not for our students to be Level 2, but for them to be Level 4 or above.  Another problem with the passing percentage (and the reason it should not be looked at as the primary indicator like percentage scoring Level 4 or above) is that it is misleading since many students taking the state tests in either Algebra I or English II are not in a “regular diploma” program.  Instead, they may be pursuing a “Certificate of Attendance” or an “Occupational Diploma (MOD).”  Both of these programs are available for students with recognized disabilities and both do not require a student to pass these state tests with a minimal score to move on.  Thus, a school might show 10% as failing to pass the Algebra I test with a Level 2.  But, with a class size of ten students that might mean one student with a disability making a regular diploma impossible did not pass the test.  If the student was on an alternate diploma track due to the disability mentioned, he/she would still be on track to get the alternate certificate or diploma without retaking the test.  Even regular diploma students are now able to incorporate other factors than simply a passing grade on this one test to allow them to achieve a “passing” level on this one test.  In my opinion, this makes the percentage of students taking the test who scored a Level 4 or Level 5 the ideal measure to “rank” districts and schools as to performance on this test.  I believe the way the data was presented indicates that the Mississippi Department of Education also sees Level 4 and above percentage as their primary indicator.  Below is a breakdown of Mississippi high schools on the PARCC English II 2014-2015 results, ranking them according to this combined Level 4 & Level 5 percentage.




Again, we are lacking two very important elements needed by administrations to derive sound instructional decisions.  The first and most desirable being growth of the same students or cohort for multiple years and the second and next desirable being change in percentage scoring Level 4 or Level 5 from one year to the next in the same grade (despite being different students).  The only way for such information to be obtained is for our state to settle upon a consistent form of end of year, summative, standardized testing and keeping it for a minimum of three years.  This would give you the baseline data needed to begin determining growth over time.  As it currently stands, we have last year’s 2014-2015 PARCC assessment results being released now which lack a baseline from the previous year (excluding 5th Science, 8th Science, Biology I, & US History which are still state developed).  In the subsequent year of 2013-2014, Mississippi gave its own MCT2/SATP tests in Language Arts and Mathematics for the last time.  This year Mississippi will give Questar assessments in Language Arts and Mathematics for the 2015-2016 year since it has dropped out of PARCC and our one-year contract with Pearson.  This will mean that the results we receive next year, based upon this year’s Questar testing, will lack any truly comparable and usable data for growth once again in Language Arts and Mathematics.  I look forward to hearing about the Questar testing and hope it is a robust, rigorous, and accurate test.  But, Mississippi I think one can see why Mississippi desperately needs stability in our curriculum and the form of state mandated end of course and end of year summative testing.  As a state, we need this stability of comparable tests over multiple years to once again have accurate growth data as a base for sound data-based instructional decision making.  The public also deserves consistency in these assessments so that they can pick up the paper to look at score results without hearing confusing details of why the data does not show a complete picture of a school’s or individual student’s performance in regards to growth.  Without a consistent type of assessment over multiple years, the public is apt to draw false conclusions about the performance of our schools’ and individual student’s performance.

In summary, standardized testing can be an invaluable, objective tool for formative instructional decisions in our classrooms and schools by allowing students to engage in learning activities literally tailored to their individual and collective needs.  However, prudence as to the frequency and manner of our non-state mandated testing practices and the use of the resulting data is a necessity to insure it yields these desirable results and does not hinder the instructional process it means to aid.  Logical reasoning on the conclusions we attempt to reach based upon assessment data and how we present this data to the public is of the utmost importance to maintain transparency to our stakeholders and to make sure our limited resources are being used in ways which the data indicates they will be most effective.  Finally, as a state we must work to have consistency in our form of mandated summative assessments so that our students receive tangible returns on the people’s investment.  Assessments and the data they yield have the potential to be one of the most powerful tools at our disposal to guide and improve instruction.  However, when close examination and logical reasoning are not used to tease out the true conclusions from such data and to make sure it aids (instead of hampers) teachers’ efforts in the classroom, such assessments are a waste of millions of dollars and a pit of instructional time which is used to cover up ineffective, arbitrary decisions within our school systems.

-Clint Stroupe

Conservatives Wearing the Name Republican vs Republicans Wearing the Name Conservative

As I was browsing the net the other night, I came across an article entitled “Mississippi Republican Party’s Law Firm Comes to the Rescue of LIBERAL DEMOCRAT!” (  I am definitely not endorsing or opposing the content of the article or the blog where it appeared, which I know little about.  However, I did think it was spot on in the way it contrasts “establishment” forces within the Republican Party with truly “conservative” elements (for the purposes of the article it is speaking more of economic conservatives).  I certainly do think it is worth a read.  The article offers a preview of what our state politics in the near future may resemble as Republicans have now become the dominant party in Mississippi state level government.

I consider myself a “social conservative,” which I contend most Mississippians are naturally inclined to be.  Second to that, I do lean conservative economically.  Yet, I have discussed in detail how the issues that concern me about the future of our nation are not financial ones as much as moral/social ones.  In regards to my personal economic conservative leanings, they are far more concerned with our national debt and operating within our means than anything else.  My political concern is whether money is being spent wisely and whether our government is going further into debt.  Simply slashing taxes right and left while digging a deeper debt hole is, I believe, absolutely the worst economic policy our government can pursue.  However, whether or not one agrees or disagrees with me about any point of my political beliefs, I still respect thinking, principled, individuals who are guided by their beliefs and act accordingly for the best interest of our country and state.  This is in contrast to those who blindly follow a political “group” or party line without really considering what the issues actually are.  It also is in contrast to those who wear the name of Republican which they try to pass of a synonym for “conservative” while having no real conservative principles (either economic or social).  These pretend “conservatives” are Republicans simply to have power for their own interests.  They are political animals without true principles other than expanding the power and financial interests of themselves and their allies.  For the blind followers and the “false conservatives” in government only for their self interests, I have no respect.

Thus, we find ourselves in 2015 Mississippi where the state Republican Party has successfully secured a supermajority in the House, a supermajority in the Senate, a Republican Lt. Governor, and a Republican Governor.  With these supermajorities and a hold on the executive branch, the Mississippi Republican Party can pass ANYTHING they want.  If you are conservative (either economically, socially, or a combination of both), just imagine whatever changes you have only dreamed of for Mississippi and would most like to see passed in our state.  Well, those conservative dreams can be a reality now.  All that has to happen is for the Republicans in charge to introduce them, push them, and have the Republicans in the legislature vote together to pass them.  There is no so-called Mississippi “liberal Democrat” wing to point at as blocking any such legislation.  The Mississippi Republican Party holds all the cards and can play the hand as they see fit.

However, what I think this change in our state government is very likely to expose and what I believe the article mentioned above demonstrates is that many in the state are Republicans, but the number of “conservatives” is far less.  Much like those who suddenly materialize with caps, shirts, and tags for whatever sports team is currently dominating, many of these politicians are Republicans simply because Republicans have been winning.  These “bandwagon Republicans” simply see it as beneficial for themselves at present to wear the “Republican” name.  For many of these “bandwagon Republicans” their self-interests and the interests of their supporters are the only principle which guides them into the Republican Party.  This type of political self-interested motivation is what had these politicians wearing the Democrat name in years past and beliefs, ideology, or principles are the absolute last thing the bandwagon jumpers ever think about before making a political move.

Besides the “bandwagon Republicans,” you also have the “establishment Republicans” who I define as Republicans who are simply out to benefit specific business or industry interests.  The “establishment Republican” has been able for several years to convince people they are some form of “conservative,” although they are not.  They have no real social conservative convictions and economically they favor a larger spending role for government to favor their supporters.  By putting on an economic or social conservative mask, these establishment Republican politicians have been able for several years to direct principled economic or social conservative voters into supporting their candidates and voting their way by painting every vote as a conservative stance (which happens to be whatever candidate or bill they support) vs a liberal stance (which happens to be whatever candidate or bill they oppose).  However, if you could see into their mind, they are actually just painting “conservative” on anything which benefits them or those with contribution money who have given to their campaigns.  The “establishment Republicans” appear conservative by advocating tax cuts or wanting to cut spending on government programs which benefit individuals.  However, the tax cuts they push are mainly geared toward corporations, and the government benefits they cut from individuals are simply replaced with new spending programs offering government financial benefits to businesses.  The establishment Republican is against “welfare” only when individual people are the recipients, but it is a different matter entirely when corporations (their donors) are the recipients of “corporate welfare” financial payouts.  An odd benefit to these Republican supermajorities in both Mississippi legislative houses is that many of these “establishment Republicans” may now have a hard time keeping their “real faces” completely obscured behind their masks.

Take the situation in the article, the author is attempting to create a narrative that describes this “establishment Republican” branch which he is casting as “false conservatives” taking the side of a “liberal Democrat.” The author presents the motivation of these “establishment Republicans” being the quid pro quo of the Democratic candidate swapping parties after the election win that their lawyers will help to secure.  Also, by supporting the Democrat candidate, the “establishment Republicans” and their lawyers get the added benefit of keeping a more ideologically principled Republican out of office.  You see the establishment has power and wants more power for its own benefit.  Should a Democrat (even a so-called “liberal Democrat”) agree to swap parties and presumably then vote with the party establishment to repay the favor, the outcome would be much more desirable than even gaining a lifelong Republican candidate whose principles might cause him to go his own way, rather than following the herd as directed by the party establishment.  Yes, in the post-2015 Mississippi political world, we are sure to see such odd occurrences as principled conservative candidates are seen as enemies of the “establishment” who only wants people who will vote with, listen to, and follow the party establishment’s marching orders.  Less desirable to this establishment is anyone with true conservative beliefs and the willingness to follow those beliefs even if they are in conflict with the establishment.  “Establishment Republicans” are Republicans first and conservatives a (perhaps very distant) second.  “Principled Republicans” are conservatives first (either economic, social, or a combination) and Republicans second.

For example, the “establishment Republican” leadership might decide they want a bill pushed through to help a major business donor by giving a tax break to their particular industry or giving some form of direct subsidy (corporate welfare) which the company would qualify to get.  In supporting such a bill, the “establishment” wing is very much going against “economic conservative” principles of limited government involvement in the economy, tight government spending, and preserving an equal playing field for all businesses to compete in the free market without favoritism from the state.  This type of situation is where the conservative “mask comes off” of the establishment exposing them as simply another political faction seeking to grant special benefits to its particular constituency.  The principled conservative (economic or social) is here a huge liability to the establishment as they look to their principles to decide how to vote instead of just to the establishment leadership’s direction.  As stated before, while Democrats were still a force to be reckoned with in the legislature, the establishment Republicans could use them to rally all troops to support any particular bill by pointing to the fact that Democrats=liberals are against this bill and Republicans=conservatives are supporting it, so the bill itself must be conservative and there was no need to scrutinize it too closely.  Thus, Democrats served as the boogey man in these cases to unify all Republicans behind particular actions, bills, or causes by giving the impression the cause itself was conservative, even if it was not.  In the present political climate, lacking this Democratic boogey man, the Republican establishment had much rather have an ex-Democrat who owes the establishment his political life and is willing to vote with the establishment on most anything rather than the principled conservative Republicans who are not nearly as dependable for such unquestioned support and voting.

As bad as such a situation might seem, I actually look forward to this type of fracturing.  I see it as some good which might come out of this election with its monolithic Republican hold upon state government.  You see I favor debate of the issues and on the surface a total Republican monopoly on state power would seem to stifle such debate as Republicans act in lock-step on every political action and vote which arises.  Yet by achieving such total dominance, I believe it is inevitable that such debate may become more prominent within the Republican Party itself.  As a person who supports ideas and individuals over simply following a party line, this would be the best possible situation.  I could care less whether Democrats hold 100% of the elected positions in the state.  I could also care less if Republicans hold 100% of those elected positions.  As long as there is freedom of thought and debate of ideas, I could care little about which party is in power.  In my opinion, competition and the free market are necessary to weed out the bad ideas and hopefully bolster the better ones.  I am optimistic that by gaining this blanket absolute political dominance in the state, the Republican Party itself will now be forced to allow such debate and competition within its own ranks and the false conservative establishment will be forced to reveal its true nature.

-Clint Stroupe

Stop the Bad Check Writing

Every year Mississippi writes a “check” to our students. Our state agreed to write this yearly check back in 1997 when it made the Miss. Adequate Education Program (MAEP) one of our laws. The legislature could change the law and make the check amount smaller, but they have not chosen to do so in the years sense. You see the law is only for writing a check just big enough to cover the minimum amount for an “adequate” education, nothing extra. I suppose no one has the nerve to go on record as actually being against writing the check every year for less than this minimum amount.

The bad part is that every year since the checks started being written, except for two election years, the checks are just no good. They are “bad checks” not able to be cashed for the agreed upon amount. Every year there are excuses and for many years people seemed to believe the excuses and the “promise” that next year when the excuse for that year had passed the checks would once again be good and could be cashed by the students. So they waited for 18 years.

But, then people began to notice that hundreds of millions were going out as new tax cuts to different establishments. They also noticed that the state began to put money into its “savings account” or “rainy day fund” as they called it. Yet they still told the students of our state that the checks could not be cashed for the full amount. The state was giving money away on tax cuts, filling up the savings account, and talking about giving away even more of the state’s money in the coming years…all the while not paying its bills so its commitment could be good to its students.

The people who supported the students and schools thought about trying to take the bad check to court to get the courts to make the state pay its bill. But, the court said it had no power because the state constitution did not give it a way to enforce the law and make the state honor its check.

So with a stack of 16 bad checks written to Mississippi students, many in the state said something had to be done. They decided to add a line to the state constitution specifying the state had to fund the amount of the check each year. The change would also have a line in it giving the court the ability to get involved should the state still not honor its commitment. The state could still change the MAEP law anytime it wanted. It could just no longer write big checks that sounded good, but which were worthless when cashed.

That proposed change is known as Initiative 42 and over 200,000 of our citizens signed a petition to get it on the ballot. Tomorrow you can tell the state that it is no longer acceptable to write bad checks to our schools and students by voting YES TO APPROVE a change to the constitution and then YES ON INITIATIVE 42. All that it will do is make our legislature make good on its own laws or to change its own laws, nothing more.

I will be voting YES to approve Initiative 42 because it is the right thing to do for our students and the future of our state. When business as usual means not honoring the commitments made to our students, it is no longer acceptable to me and I hope you will join me in this effort!

-Clint Stroupe